The Gear Dynamic Factor, Historical and Modern Perspective


The dynamic factor has been included in gear design and rating formulas since the 1930's. Its original formulation was based on an assessment of entering tooth impacts, but in modern gear design procedures, where tip relief and lead modifications are common, these impacts may be virtually eliminated. With this elimination, one finds that gear dynamics are mainly excited by steady state phenomena such as transmission error, friction and axial shuttling of the mesh force. This paper will first provide a historical progression of the dynamic factor equations that are based on impact theory and will define when this methodology is appropriate. The paper will then discuss the various steady state modeling approaches and will use one of these approaches to demonstrate the effects of manufacturing deviations on predicted dynamic loads.
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